European events sowed the seeds of Venezuela's declaration of independence. The Napoleonic Wars in Europe not only weakened Spain's imperial power but also put Britain (unofficially) on the side of the independence movement. In May 1808, Napoleon demanded and received the abdication of Ferdinand VII of Spain and the confirmation of the abdication of Ferdinand's father Charles IV . Napoleon then appointed as King of Spain his own brother Joseph Bonaparte . That marked the beginning of Spain's own War of Independence from French hegemony and partial occupation before the Spanish American wars of independence even began. The focal point of Spanish political resistance, the Supreme Central Junta , was formed to govern in the name of Ferdinand. The first major defeat that Napoleonic France suffered occurred at the Battle of Bailén in Andalusia (July 1808). Despite this Spanish victory, the French soon regained the initiative and advanced into southern Spain. The Spanish government had to retreat to the island redoubt of Cádiz . Here, the Supreme Central Junta dissolved itself and set up a five-person regency to handle the affairs of state until the Cortes Generales could convene.
The Academy of Finland has launched a funding trial to support particularly innovative and high-quality projects confirmed to involve promising risk-taking in terms of research. Out of the ten projects funded , three belong to the Faculty of Pharmacy. Leena Kontturi (Light triggered and pH sensitive liposomes with gold nanoparticles for posterior eye drug delivery), Yan-Ru Lou (Stem cell-derived, three-dimensional liver: the missing link in drug discovery) and Tapani Viitala (Real-time label-free cell based in vitro models for mechanistic understanding of emerging nanomedicines).
This cathartic release of emotions is often believed to be therapeutic for affected individuals. Many therapeutic mechanisms have been seen to aid in emotional recovery. One example is "interpersonal emotion regulation," in which listeners help to modify the affected individual's affective state by using certain strategies.  Expressive writing is another common mechanism for catharsis. Joanne Frattaroli  published a meta-analysis suggesting that written disclosure of information, thoughts, and feelings enhances mental health.