Since the mid-1990s, a number of wine brands have switched to alternative wine closures such as plastic stoppers, screw caps , or other closures. During 1972 more than half of the Australian bottled wine went bad due to corking. A great deal of anger and suspicion was directed at Portuguese and Spanish cork suppliers who were suspected of deliberately supplying bad cork to non-EEC wine makers to help prevent cheap imports. Cheaper wine makers developed the aluminium "Spelvin" cap with a polypropylene stopper wad. More expensive wines and carbonated varieties continued to use cork, although much closer attention was paid to the quality. Even so, some high premium makers prefer the Spelvin as it is a guarantee that the wine will be good even after many decades of ageing. Some consumers may have conceptions about screw caps being representative of lower quality wines, due to their cheaper price; however, in Australia, for example, much of the non-sparkling wine production now uses these Spelvin caps as a cork alternative, although some have recently switched back to cork citing issues using screw caps.  These alternatives to cork have both advantages and disadvantages. For example, screwtops are generally considered to offer a trichloroanisole (TCA) free seal, but they also reduce the oxygen transfer rate between the bottle and the atmosphere to almost zero, which can lead to a reduction in the quality of the wine. [ citation needed ] TCA is the main documented cause of cork taint in wine. However, some in the wine industry say natural cork stoppers are important because they allow oxygen to interact with wine for proper aging, and are best suited for wines purchased with the intent to age.  Stoppers which resemble natural cork very closely can be made by isolating the suberin component of the cork from the undesirable lignin , mixing it with the same substance used for contact lenses and an adhesive, and molding it into a standardized product, free of TCA or other undesirable substances.  Composite corks with real cork veneers are used in cheaper wines. 
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He has over 650 peer reviewed and 195 non-peer reviewed publications. He has published over 300 book chapters and is the editor of over 54 textbooks and co-editor of OKU-Spine I and editor of OKU-8. Dr. Vaccaro also serves as Co-Director of the Regional Spinal Cord Injury Center of the Delaware Valley and Co-Director of Spine Surgery and the Spine Fellowship program at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, where he instructs current fellows and residents in the diagnosis and treatment of various spinal problems and disorders.